For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums. Some animals have special adaptations that get them through periods where their bodies demand extraordinary amounts of protein. Most of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and most of the absorption of nutrients into the blood occurs in the small intestine. Newly formed food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes, which are organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes. It produces hydrochloric acid for three reasons: 2) To give the right pH for pepsin and renin to work (pH2-acidic). AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more! Besides fuel and carbon skeletons, an animal’s diet must also supply essential nutrients. The esophageal sphincter relaxes and the bolus enters the esophagus. This is necessary so that food substances are small enough to be carried by the blood and able to pass into the cells. Still, the epithelium is continually eroded, and the epithelium is completely replaced by mitosis every three days. Iron is also a type of mineral, it has the function of making haemoglobin in red blood cells. The stomach is located in the upper abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient for humans and other primates, guinea pigs, and some birds and snakes, but not for most other animals. Particularly in mammals, evolutionary adaptation of teeth for processing different kinds of food is one of the major reasons that mammals have been so successful. Also present in gastric juice is pepsin, an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins. The main branch of the human colon is shaped like an upside-down U, about 1.5 m long. All snakes have another important anatomic adaptation for feeding, the ability swallow large prey whole. Vitamin C maintains healthy skin, gum and the lining of blood vessels. The fats are mixed with cholesterol and coated with special proteins to form small globules called chylomicrons. Mineral requirements vary with animal species. ■ Carbohydrates are the basic source of energy for all animals. It provides bulk to the intestinal contents and helps peristalsis. Its presence can be tested by using the filter paper experiment or the alcohol test. Applied Animal Nutrition Laboratory procedures in animal nutrition zoo/wild animal breeding nutrition management & health care PET ANIMAL BREEDING, NUTRITION, MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH CARE . Obesity may be beneficial in certain species. Eight amino acids are essential in the adult human with a ninth, histidine, being essential for infants. The liver performs a wide variety of important functions in the body, including the production of bile. Digestion cleaves macromolecules into their component monomers, which the animal then uses to make its own molecules or as fuel for ATP production. The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption. 1) Secretion of intestinal juice which consists of the intestinal amylase, maltase, lipase and      protease. 14. Between the rectum and the anus are two sphincters, one involuntary and one voluntary. To enter the body, nutrients in the lumen must pass the lining of the digestive tract. Nonmammalian vertebrates generally have less specialized dentition, but there are exceptions. The only thing I claim would be the effort of compiling them into (hopefully easier to read) notes based on IGCSE Biology syllabus. HUMAN NUTRITION. 4) This is also where the “food” is absorbed into the blood. The human body tends to store any excess fat molecules obtained from food instead of using them for fuel. Carnivores, such as sharks, hawks, spiders, and snakes, eat other animals. Animal Nutrition - IGCSE Topic 7 TEETH milk teeth (deciduous teeth) permanent teeth tooth decay gum disease plague and tarter root/crown enamel dentine pulp cavity cement/fibers DIET the alimentary canal Liver * Hepatic portal vein*Define assimilation metabolism of glucose to The lower jaw is loosely hinged to the skull by an elastic ligament that permits the mouth and throat to open very wide for swallowing. In the first 25 cm or so of the small intestine, the duodenum, acid chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall. Humans and other vertebrates require relatively large quantities of calcium and phosphorus for the construction and maintenance of bone. 2) Calcium is a type of mineral, it has the function: 18. The brush border of the epithelial lining of the duodenum produces several digestive enzymes. Insufficient of fibre can cause constipation. While fat hoarding can be a liability today, it probably provided a fitness advantage for our hunting-and-gathering ancestors, enabling individuals with genes promoting the storage of high-energy molecules during feasts to survive the eventual famines. Many vertebrates (and termites) solve this problem by housing large populations of symbiotic bacteria and protists in special fermentation chambers in their alimentary canals. The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing. Because food moves in one direction, the tube can be organized into specialized regions that carry out digestion and nutrient absorption in a stepwise fashion. ANN 121: Applied Animal Nutrition-I (2+1) You are currently using guest access Page path ... Effect of nutrition on the initiation and maintenance of reproductive ability Page. The terminal portion of the colon is called the rectum, where feces are stored until they can be eliminated. Lack of Vitamin C can cause scurvy. All animals eat other organisms—dead or alive, whole or by the piece (including parasites). Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium. In this lesson, we revise: nutrition in various animals o Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores the two different types of human digestion o Mechanical o Chemical. NOTES; A balanced diet is a diet that provides all the nutrients in the correct amounts needed to carry out life processes. Fowl also have a monogastric digestive system, although the diges- tive tract found in fowl has several … Animals get their food from other organisms. Disclaimer: Due to unforeseen difficulties, we have had to take down the images on this notes page. Overconsumption may lead to toxic accumulations of these compounds. NUTRITION: The scientific study of nourishment in animals. Constipation – difficulty to remove faeces. B4.3 – Animal Nutrition. Debate centers on the optimal doses of vitamins C and E. While research is ongoing, all that can be said with any certainty is that people who eat a balanced diet are not likely to develop symptoms of vitamin deficiency. Diffusion and osmosis; 3. To test for the presence of proteins, use biuret’s reagent. Saliva also contains buffers that help prevent tooth decay by neutralizing acid in the mouth. Need help with knowledge of how animals colonized land? Although cellulose fibers have no caloric value to humans, their presence in the diet helps move food along the digestive tract. Comparison of post-gastric (horse) and pre-gastric (ruminant) fermentation a) Carbohydrates. 2 . Home UC Davis Department of Animal Science. View lecture-notes-animal-nutrition-course-4-notes-on-digestion-and-absorption.pdf from KINE 4140 at York University. Autotrophic nutrition: In this type of nutrition, the plants and other photosynthetic organisms prepare their own food with the help of sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. The victims are usually children, who, if they survive infancy, are likely to be retarded in physical and perhaps mental development. 3) To neutralise the alkaline effect of saliva. Production of other proteins such as enzymes and hormones. On this page you can read or download notes about animal nutrition grade 11 in PDF format. Effects of prolonged under or over feeding of breeding animals Page. These mice can be treated by injection with leptin. The stomach also secretes a digestive fluid called gastric juice and mixes this secretion with the food by the churning action of the smooth muscles in the stomach wall. Animal Nutrition Abbreviations ADF- Acid Detergent Fiber NDF- Neutral Detergent Fiber CF- Crude Fiber NFE- Nitrogen Free *AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this web site. Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in quantities that are quite small compared with the relatively large quantities of essential amino acids and fatty acids animals need. Magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and molybdenum are cofactors built into the structure of certain enzymes. Excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted in urine, and moderate overdoses are probably harmless. Many animals with simple body plans, such as cnidarians and flatworms, have digestive sacs with single openings, called gastrovascular cavities. Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins. Nutrition is defined as the sum of the following processes – ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. The cud, with many microorganisms, passes to the abomasum for digestion by the cow’s enzymes. Pepsin, which works well in strongly acidic environments, breaks peptide bonds adjacent to specific amino acids, producing smaller polypeptides. ANIMAL STUDIES ANIMAL NUTRITION 1. Vitamin K is required for blood clotting. Dozens of genes that code for these hormones have been identified. Excess consumption of salt (sodium chloride) is harmful. While the terms herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore represent the kinds of food that an animal usually eats, most animals are opportunistic, eating foods that are outside their main dietary category when these foods are available. These bile pigments are eliminated from the body with the feces. In addition, animals with alimentary canals can eat more food before the earlier meal is completely digested. Most carnivores obtain some nutrients from plant materials that remain in the digestive tract of the prey that they eat. Rather than removing a molecule of water for each new covalent bond formed, digestion breaks bonds with the addition of water via enzymatic hydrolysis. 3) Carbohydrates are digested into glucose, proteins are digested into amino acids, and … 1) Secretion of pancreatic juice which consists of the pancreatic amylase, trypsin   (protease), lipase and bile. This biosynthesis can be used to grow in size or for reproduction, or it can be stored in energy depots. They are for maintaining normal health and development. Large circular folds in the lining bear fingerlike projections called villi, and each epithelial cell of a villus has many microscopic appendages called microvilli that are exposed to the intestinal lumen. Because a diet of a single staple such as rice or corn can often provide sufficient calories, undernourishment is generally common only where drought, war, or some other crisis has severely disrupted the food supply. When fewer calories are taken in than are expended—perhaps because of sustained heavy exercise or lack of food—fuel is taken out of storage depots and oxidized. Reply Delete. If you need to contact the Course-Notes.Org web experience team, please use our contact form. 1 . About every 20 seconds, the stomach contents are mixed by the churning action of smooth muscles. The food chutes from the mouth to the stomach. Individuals who are forced by economic necessity or other circumstances to obtain nearly all their calories from corn would show symptoms of protein deficiency. The flow of food energy into and out of an animal can be viewed as a “budget,” with the production of ATP accounting for the largest fraction by far of the energy budget of most animals. 3) Sodium bicarbonate are secreted into the duodenum to neutralise the acidic effect of     hydrochloric acid. The average U.S. citizen eats enough salt to provide about 20 times the required amount of sodium. Diffusion and Osmosis Revision Notes: 2. Starch – advantage to the horse, the ruminant is less efficient Fiber – advantage to the ruminant; total fermentation is greater in the rumen compared with the hindgut of the horse. Your dietary requirements depend on your age, sex and activity. With accordion-like folds and a very elastic wall, the stomach can stretch to accommodate about 2 L of food and fluid, storing an entire meal. ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY . When we swallow, the top of the windpipe moves up so that its opening, the glottis, is blocked by a cartilaginous flap, the epiglottis. The faeces (the indigestible food) are expelled. 2 . Large, expandable stomachs are common in carnivores, which may go for a long time between meals and, therefore, must eat as much as they can when they do catch prey. We hope your visit has been a productive one. So far, 13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified. Urea is a nitrogenous substance which is sent to the kidneys for disposal. An animal is feed on food material containing minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and fats. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. 3) Carbohydrates are digested into glucose, proteins are digested into amino acids, and     fats are digested into glycerol and fatty acids. Vitamin E seems to protect membrane phospholipids from oxidation. god bless you bro!! If we see enough demand, we'll do whatever we can to get those notes up on the site for you! For example, cattle and deer, which are herbivores, may occasionally eat small animals or bird eggs. Natural Sciences Grade 9 Grade 7 9 Workbooks. The small intestine has a huge surface area—300 m2, roughly the size of a tennis court. Given a source of organic carbon (such as sugar) and a source of organic nitrogen (usually in amino acids from the digestion of proteins), animals can fabricate a great variety of organic molecules—carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Chemical digestion of carbohydrates, a main source of chemical energy, begins in the oral cavity. Digestion reverses the process that a cell uses to link together monomers to form macromolecules. ‹ Chapter 40 - Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function, Chapter 42 - Circulation and Gas Exchange ›, Pearson Biology Guided Reading Answers Chapter 3. You may feel hunger pangs when your empty stomach churns. Basically notes and worksheets for students on Classes of Food, Mechanical Digestion (Teeth), Chemical Digestion & Absorption Disclaimer: I do not own any of the images and some notes are also compiled from different resources. Chylomicrons are transported by exocytosis out of epithelial cells and into lacteals. 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