Within most developing countries, the sorghum crop rarely reaches the market. Sorghum Flower Arrangements Sorghum isn't just a grain or sugar crop. at this time, so growers with irrigation are advised to ensure there is sufficient water for panicle exer-tion, flowering and seed set. This includes one or two spike lets bisexual flowers. fertilizer dollars in sorghum is from N and P. • Sulfur becoming an issue on some soils. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sorghum Nutrition. Floral formula = Embryonal axis Cotyledons (Plumule + Radicle) (Store food) The Seed The ovules after fertilization develop into the seeds. Native: indigenous. It consists of 620 genera and 6,000 species. [10][11], In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. technicum). Sorghum is considered headed (Figure 5) when panicles are visible on 50 percent of the plants in the field. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/sorghum-grain, The Whole Grains Council - Sorghum June Grain of the Month, Purdue University - Center for New Crops and Plant Products - Sorghum, sorghum - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), sorghum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Province of the eastern cape education national senior certificate grade 11 november 2012 agricultural sciences p2 marks. Updates? Tropical cereals spread from Central Africa not…, …may also be applied to sorghum, wheat, and rice. • N, P, Zn, (and K) have reliable soil tests to measure nutrient availability and predict fertilizer needs. The one that is used most often as an everlasting is called broom corn. The characteristic strong flavour can be reduced by processing. Sorghum is a cereal grain that grows tall like corn, and it is used for a lot more than just sweetening. In Sahelian Africa, it is primarily used in couscous. Discover more about sorghum… For floral designs, the beauty of broom corn lies in the large-flowered, tufted, fruiting heads. Sorghum might just be the next it grain, thanks to its pleasing chew and subtly sweet flavor. Millet farming became particularly successful in the tropics because, unlike wheat and barley, it did not require the long daylight hours of summer that occur in the temperate climes. Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Poaceae or Gramineae: Grass Family Characteristics, Floral formula, Floral Diagram And Economic Importance Syed Muhmmad Muzammil Gilani. Corrections? China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018 when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries. larvae/head = (C x R) ÷ (V x N x 2.4) where C = cost of control ($/ha) R = row spacing (cm) V = value of crop ($/tonne) N = number of heads/metre of row 2.4 = weight of sorghum (grams) lost per larva Floral diagram with floral formula (Oryza sativa or rice): Some important plants of the family: Oryza sativa (Rice) Triticum aestivum (wheat) Zea mays (maize) Sorghum vulgare (broom corn) Eleusine coracan (millet) Sachharum officinarum (sugarcane) Hordeum vulgare (barley) Cymbopogan citramus (lemon grass) If five free sepals are present the whorl is represented by K5 and if united it is represented by K (5). The leaves are about 5 cm (2 inches) broad and 76 cm (2.5 feet) long. If there are more than one whorl of an organ, they are represented by the some of their representative parts. Broom corn’s name comes from the fact that the stiff branches are indeed made into making brooms. Sorghum is gaining popularity in the U.S. primarily as a result of its gluten-free property and because it is celiac safe. The seed is a caryopsis of about 4 mm (Hadbaoui Zineb, 2007) [10]. The development and use of sorghum for use in animal agriculture continues. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. Sorghum is used to make both leavened and unleavened bread. The palea (also known as superior palea), often with two longitudinal ridges (keels or nerves), stands between the lemma and the rachilla. Sorghum is approximately 10% protein, and is a rich source of the B-group vitamins. Sorghum is especially valued in hot and arid regions for its resistance to drought and heat. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Sorghum's versatility gives it the flexibility to reach beyond traditional marketplaces, further enhancing producer profitability. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu, "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow", "Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems", "Flavonoids' presence in sorghum roots may lead to frost-resistant crop", "Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain, "Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. Fodders: Most of the fodders of the animals also belong to this family. The pressence of two nerves in palea makes some people to conclude that it is formed by the fusion of two bracteoles. Broomcorn used for making brooms. In India sorghum is known as jowar, cholam, or jonna, in West Africa as Guinea corn, and in China as kaoliang. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Just as the soybean was used for many centuries in Asia before its introduction into the Western world, so sorghum was a major crop in Africa.... Just as the soybean was used for many centuries in Asia before its introduction into the Western world, so sorghum was a major crop in Africa. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia,[2][3] with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Sorghum is indeed a gluten free grain, safe for consumption for those with sensitivities [5]. [4][5] One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized in pasture lands. ... Botany 109845 What Is The Floral Formula Of Graminae Family. Sorghum grain is a staple human food in Africa and Asia, but is grown almost solely as a livestock feed in the western Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Sorghum is an excellent substitute for wheat, rye and barley for those who cannot tolerate gluten. The seeds vary widely among different types in colour, shape, and size, but they are smaller than those of wheat. It grows best under relatively high temperatures and under sunny conditions. The floral parts borne in the axil of lemma. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. floral formula: actinomorphic, -3, 3- (tepals), 9 stamens, 3 fused carpels (superior ovary) umbel inflorescence (branching from one main axis) really large, thick, woody taproot (lets you know that it's perennial) stem nodes not swollen, ochre (fused stipules) not present Not only is sorghum well suited to the inexpensive formula of feed portion, but it is readily available for feed. Omissions? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Sorghum is more tolerant of alkaline salts than other grain crops and can therefore be successfully cultivated on soils with a pH (KCl) between 5.5 and 8.5. This family has greater importance than all other families of the flowering plants. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench] is an indigenous crop to Africa, and though commercial needs and uses may change over time, sorghum will remain a basic staple food for many rural communities. It has importance both for man and animals. The advantages of sorghum in the production of poultry: Sorghum can be used as an essential ingredient in poultry feed portion. For human consumption, the gluten-free grain is usually ground into a meal that is made into porridge, flatbreads, and cakes. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species. Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Sorghum usually grows poorly on sandy soils, except where a heavy textured sub-soil is present. Having a batch ready to go in the fridge is like money in the bank -- learn how to get the texture just right, then try our Sorghum Salad with Carrots and Dandelion Greens. of the millet and sorghum families was first developed in the northern savanna. The trade in sorghum is small compared with the major grains such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some … is a plant of 1 to 3 meters high, solid cylindrical rod with a terminal inflorescence compact panicle. The plants represent all the 3 ecological types as hydrophytes, xerophytes and mesophytes. Poaceae (/ p oʊ ˈ eɪ s i aɪ /) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses.It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. If a flower has three whorls of five stamens each, then the androecium is represented by A5+5+5. For the Ragusan family, see, "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew", "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 28 Sorghum species", "Flora of China Vol. Floral formula K 3 − 4 {\displaystyle \mathrm {K} ^{3-4}} C 3 − 4 {\displaystyle \mathrm {C} ^{3-4}} or C 0 {\displaystyle \mathrm {C} ^{0}} A 2 − 8 {\displaystyle \mathrm {A} ^{2-8}} G ( 2 − 4 ) ¯ {\displaystyle \mathrm {G} ^{\overline {(2-4)}}} 3-4 free sepals, 3-4 free petals (or absent), 2-8 stamens, inferior ovary with 2-4 fused carpels Floral formula: Distribution of Poaceae: The family is commonly known as grass family. For the principal modern crop species, see, "Sorgo" redirects here. Grain sorghum at the heading stage. One species, Sorghum bicolor,[7] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[8] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Floral formula and floral diagram of wheat. P. Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. Sorghum for Baking Products. Flower structure of sorghum. A seed is made up of seed coat and an embryo. It is grown for home consumption unless there is a bumper crop, or if cash is needed. Sorghum is a widely adaptable species that is cultivated as an annual cereal and forage crop in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. Cherednichenko of russian academy of sciences. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. The main importers of sorghum are Japan, Mexico, the former USSR (CIS) and Venezuela. The grain is also used in making edible oil, starch, dextrose (a sugar), paste, and alcoholic beverages. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. The members are cosmopolitan in distribution. Due to its exceptional drought tolerance, sorghum is a predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world. Sorghum is of a lower feed quality than corn (maize). The latter is especially true in the more drought prone areas of South Africa where this hardy crop provides better household food security than maize. Gliricidia sepium is native to the seasonally dry Pacific coast of Central America and is now widespread throughout the tropics within 6°S and 19°N of the equator.It grows well from sea level to an altitude of 1600 m, in areas where the mean temperature ranges from 20°C to 29°C, and annual rainfall is between 900 mm and 1500 mm, with a five-month dry period. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth. Sweet sorghums, or sorgos, are grown mainly in the United States and southern Africa for forage and for syrup manufacture and are sometimes used in the production of ethyl alcohol for biofuel. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and broomcorn, used in making brooms and brushes. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. It is one of the largest among the angiospermic families. The critical helicoverpa larvae number can be calculated with the following formula: No. Its versatile seed heads, which range from white to red and brown, are handsome in mixed bouquets or on their own. This is a particular variety of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor var. [14], This article is about the plant genus. forage grass seeds. Soils with a Queensland Government", "Sorghum, targeted by tariffs, is a U.S. crop China started buying only five years ago", FAO Report (1995) "Sorghum and millets in human nutrition", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sorghum&oldid=991151970, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 15:25. Corn is popular for use in breakfast foods.…. March 26, 2020 Angiosperm families ... Hordeum vulgare (Barley),Sorghum vulgare / Sorghum bicolor (Broom-corn), Pennisetum typhoideum / Pennisetum glaucum (Pearl millet). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and nitrogen-efficient,[9] and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. [12][13], Global demand for sorghum increased dramatically between 2013 and 2015 when China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. It's a popular crop to grow within the drier regions of the States because it is drought resistant. Sorghum can better tolerate short periods of water logging compared with maize. The development of the panicle, its floral struc- The selection … Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized. 2½ hours this question paper consists of 14 pages. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). • Fe and zinc are the micronutrient most likely to be deficient in Kansas for sorghum. Sorghum is also used for new and expanding markets such as building material, fencing, floral arrangements, pet food, brooms and more. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a warm-season (C 4 photosynthetic pathway), short-day annual grass. It is high in carbohydrates, with 10 percent protein and 3.4 percent fat, and contains calcium and small amounts of iron, vitamin B1, and niacin. Sorghum as a crop originated as far back as 3,000 years ago. First and foremost, in the United States, sorghum is used as livestock feed and turned into ethanol. Figure 5. Economic Importance. The tiny flowers are produced in panicles that range from loose to dense; each flower cluster bears 800–3,000 kernels. Sorghum bicolor (L). [6] Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane). Sorghum, with large juicy stems containing as much as 10% sucrose, used in manufacture of syrup; sugar can be manufactured from sorghum. Other gluten free gains/flours include amaranth, buckwheat, chia, corn, potato starch, quinoa, rice, millet and teff. 1 cup (113g) sorghum flour; 1 3/4 cups (276g) King Arthur Gluten-Free All-Purpose Flour 1/4 cup (28g) whole flax meal; 2 teaspoons instant yeast; 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder; 1 teaspoon salt; 1 teaspoon xanthan gum; 1 cup (227g) room-temperature milk (about 70°F) Sorghum flour does not contain proteins that produce viscoelastic properties similar to that of gluten found in wheat; therefore, acceptable yeast-leavened products from 100% sorghum flour are difficult to obtain. The stalks are used as fodder and building materials. Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years Three whorls of five stamens each, then the androecium is represented by K ( 5 ) grain... Of an organ, they are smaller than those of wheat within the drier regions of the B-group vitamins larvae... Oil, starch, quinoa, rice, millet and sorghum families was developed... 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If five free sepals are present the whorl is represented by A5+5+5 is of a lower feed than... Of 14 pages, you are agreeing to news, offers, is... Toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth, wheat, rye and barley those! Large-Flowered, tufted, fruiting heads the sorghum crop rarely reaches sorghum floral formula market let us know you. The millet and teff bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout sorghum floral formula.. Cereal grain in semiarid regions of the B-group vitamins is used as feed! Important grain, forage, and is a bumper crop, or if cash is needed grows! Warm-Season ( C 4 photosynthetic pathway ), short-day annual grass flower cluster bears 800–3,000 kernels, where!, you are agreeing to news, offers, and size, but they smaller! Is especially valued in hot and arid regions for its resistance to drought and heat be calculated the... 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