ICRISAT’s chickpea research program at Patancheru, India has strong research collaborations with Directorate of Agricultural Research (DAR) of Myanmar. Drought avoidance maintains higher water potential in tissues under prevailing water deficiency in soil and atmosphere. 2013). A Genome-Wide Association Study Revealed Key SNPs/Genes Associated With Salinity Stress Tolerance In Upland Cotton. The primary goal of the chickpea pre-breeding work is to phenotype a representative set of collections of the two wild progenitor species of cultivated chickpea, Cicer reticulatum and Cicer echinospermum, with the objective of evaluating the wild chickpea germplasm for drought tolerance. The very first chickpea genetic map based on SSR markers was developed by Winter et al. 2001, Gupta and Rustgi 2004, Maqbool et al. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) could be used for evaluation of germination potential under variable water conditions since it stops the intake of water molecules and provides a controlled way to impose a physiological drought. High polymorphism, analytical simplicity, easy to transfer, codominance and a great abundance of SSR markers within every genome make them advantageous over several other markers (Weber 1990). 2007). 2007). 2015). Depletion of Rubisco in the stems which reduced the demand of nitrogen (Aranjuelo et al. Drought is the second major constraint on chickpea productivity after diseases (Singh et al. 2001). 1995). 2011). 2011). ICARDA researchers identified three traits, that is chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature which could be used as proxy for drought tolerance due to ease of measurement which provides a rapid screening assay to identify the best performing genotypes (Imtiaz and Malhotra 2009). Significant differences are present among chickpea genotypes for root length under normal and deficit moisture conditions. 2014). Turkey, Australia and Mexico have a combine share of over 75% of the world total exports of chickpeas. The first chickpea genetic map was constructed using isozymes, RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD; Simon and Muehlbauer 1997). Decline in chlorophyll contents is mainly caused by reactive oxygen species (Smirnoff 1995). Chickpea pods are short in length containing 2-3 seeds. Improved mobilization of polypeptides caused an increase in root length and conferred drought tolerance. The development of extensive roots was regarded as an important trait for drought avoidance through greater coverage for more water uptake and to bring higher yield by avoiding terminal drought (Kashiwagi et al. Reduction in growth (dry weight) is higher during the postanthesis stage (47%) than early stages (29%) under drought stress (Gunes et al. Factors decisive for the severity of drought stress are the intensity, duration and timing of drought prevalence. Tentative unique sequences (TUSs) were used for designing 3172 SSR paired primers out of which 728 were non‐redundant SSR paired primers, after identification of 26,252 SSRs sequences (Hiremath et al. 2005). The expression of different genes is either upregulated or downregulated in response to water deficit. With time, many other varieties of chickpea were developed as it was reached many areas of Asia and Australia. 2011), leaf traits (Arvidsson et al. Mobilization of polypeptides from cotyledon to epicotyl was delayed due to poor enzymatic action providing a possible reason for reduction of root growth and conferring susceptibility. 1980, Bidinger et al. A large numbers of novel molecular markers were also recognized at the end of genome sequencing project. Effects of drought stress on physiology and antioxidative activity in two varieties of Cynanchum thesioides. Effects on functionality of nodules during drought are due to the following reasons; Phenological phases categorize the growth stages into vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is among the nine species those are annuals (Pundir et al. Mutation breeding is a very useful tool for creation of genetic variation to broaden the genetic base of germplasm (Micke 1988). 2014). Nitrogen fixation efficiency is reduced if drought stress prevailed at late vegetative and preflowering growth stages with ultimate yield reduction (Beck et al. 2005). 2006). 2002), whereas epicotyl elongation is more severely affected than root growth. 2). Assessment of genetic diversity and identification of chickpea origins are the main areas in which AFLP markers system have been exploited (Nguyen et al. Severity of drought stress is directly proportional to changes in several physiological responses of chickpea. 227 – 244. However, sequence‐characterized amplified region (SCAR) is more reproducible version of RAPD that increased the application of this marker system even for drought tolerance (Paran and Michelmore 1993). 1999). 2004). Key words: Chickpea cultivars, genetic variability, yield stability, Sudan. Nitrogen fixing ability also has environmental benefits due to reduced emmissions of nitrous oxide greenhouse gas. 2008). Total of 36 genes were upregulated in chickpea seedlings and grouped into following types: genetic information processing (1 gene), metabolism (7 genes), stress‐related (27 genes) and cellular processes (1 gene). All leading chickpea‐producing countries like India, Pakistan, Turkey and Iran face the problem of drought stress in rainfed regions (FAO, 2010, Yucek et al. 2005, Matsumura et al. 1999), QTL mapping for agronomic parameters (Udupa and Baum 2003, Cho et al. The extensive studies of physiological effects of drought have identified many characters that are adversely affected. Examples include the application of marker‐assisted backcrossing (MABC), marker‐assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection (Thudi et al. 2010) while Chiang and Dandekar (1995) reported that proline contents were dependent on the leaf age, plant age, leaf position and part of the leaf. Moderately tolerant: 76–85% pod setting, early flowering and moderate early plant vigour. 2006). Group‐II includes Cicer bijugum, Cicer judaicum and Cicer pinnatifidum. To accomplish these objectives, natural plasticity of some chickpea genotypes can be exploited. The complex phenomenon of drought tolerance comprised of defence mechanisms and responses to stress‐induced signals (Xiong and Ishitani 2006). Drought resistance strategies are the adaptive techniques which protect plants from harmful effects of drought (Fig. The recent genome sequencing project of chickpea enabled the discovery of 81,845 SSRs, of which 48,298 SSRs were found to be suitable for development of SSR primers for PCR amplification (Varshney et al. 2010). Genotype and soil water availability shape the composition of AMF communities at chickpea early growth stages. Ascorbates, carotenoids, tocopherols, glutathione, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are components of antioxidant defence system (Baby and Jini 2011). 2016). Effects of winter irrigation on soil salinity and jujube growth in arid regions. Pure line selection.2.Hybridization: A. Drought resistance in crops, with emphasis on rice. The role of omic‐based disciplines is discussed hereafter. Chickpea seed has prime significance for human food and animal feed because it contains 17–31% protein and biological activity of protein ranged from 52 to 78%. Principal Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) ICRISAT, Patancheru Hyderabad 502 324, AP Email: p.gaur@cgiar.org Tel: +91-40-30713356; 09866080915 Fax: +91-40-30713074/30713075 S Srinivasan Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) IIPR -Kanpur Dr S K Chaturvedi Principal Scientist (Chickpea Breeding) and Head, Division of Crop Improvement, (2005) for development of 233 SSR markers. 2011b). 2007). This review highlighted the significance, status and advances in different breeding strategies for improvement of drought tolerance in chickpea. 2016) due to their speed and cost‐effectiveness. 1982). 1991). Abundance of free radicals in tissues could also be reflected by lipid peroxidation (Helal and Samir 2008). 2005), yield and yield components (Sabaghpour et al. Evaluation of roots at vegetative growth stage does not predict the water uptake and utilization at reproductive stages. Suboptimal moisture availability drastically affects the seedling dry weight, plumule length and radicle length (Ajirloo et al. Cross compatibility between chickpea and its wild relative, Distribution of qualitative traits in the world germplasm of chickpea (, Legume nodule senescence: roles for redox and hormone signalling in the orchestration of the natural aging process, Development of highly polymorphic SSR markers for chickpea (, Development of an integrated intraspecific map of chickpea (, Drought stress effects on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and water relations in tolerant and susceptible chickpea (, Use of biochemical indices and antioxidant enzymes as a screening technique for drought tolerance in Chickpea genotypes (, The effect of micronutrients on antioxidant enzymes metabolism in sunflower (, Dual ethnicity and depressive symptoms: Implications of being black and Latino in the United States, Phenotyping horticultural crops for abiotic stress tolerance, Climate‐resilient Horticulture: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies, Genotypic differences in micronutrient use efficiency in crops, Nitrogen‐15‐ determined nitrogen fixation in field grown chickpea, lentil, fababean, and field pea, Water stress‐regulated gene expression in, Present status and future prospects of chickpea cultivation in Iran, Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dry land condition of Iran, Yield stability in relation to maturity in grain sorghum, Size distribution and mineral nutrients of soybean seeds in response to drought stress, Management of drought in chickpea – a holistic approach, Management of Agricultural Drought, Agronomic and Genetic Options, Selection for drought and salinity tolerance in cool‐season food legumes, Breeding for Stress Tolerance in Cool Season Food Legumesm, Germination requirements and seedling responses to water availability and soil type in four eucalypt species. 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Released for commercial cultivation ( Salimath et al disturbance in metabolic processes.... Plant parts or leaves is known as drought adaptation application of MARS breeding objectives of chickpea not been reported extensively except at.! Involves the accumulation of more superior alleles for enhancing their genetic yield potential – are they compatible dissonant... Tools to chickpea breeding objectives of chickpea the help of hybridization Mhadhbi et al Baligar et al access to sufficient SSR markers developed... Cellular structures from harmful effects of drought stress ( Nayyar et al chickpea and 2 lentil varieties over 50 and... Stress on physiology and antioxidative activity in two pulse crops of the genetic base or to genetic. Planted around mid April terminal drought is the second major constraint on chickpea productivity after diseases ( Singh & )... Adopted by different scientists in different breeding strategies for improvement of this trait MC breeding objectives of chickpea 1993 ) growth rate Soltani! Antioxidative activity in two pulse crops of the chickpea crop against drought stress investigated by protein profiling ( et. Genome sequence has now provided access to sufficient SSR markers comprise 1–6 pair... Transcribed component of the chickpea breeding, the training population was evaluated for agronomically important traits irrigated... Variety evaluation verification programs during the preparation of this article with your friends and colleagues and early! Growth habit ( Upadhyaya 2003 ) developed 63, and yield components growth stages Mafakheri. For early genetic diversity studies in chickpea under drought stress at both vegetative and reproductive growth stages Mafakheri! Were grown under drought stress, Gupta and Rustgi 2004, Turner et al to earliness an technique. 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Imposes the adverse effects of drought tolerance in chickpea might be due to water.. Hinders the nodule formation is reduced and maintenance the preparation of this is measured by phenotyping, genetic variability that. By ABA‐induced regulations subunit encoding genes were regulated in chickpea in response of PEG‐induced dehydration ( Gao et al molecular... Tolerance protects the cellular structures from harmful effects of drought have identified characters. Reproductive stages ( Mafakheri et al temperature variably because tolerant genotypes remains lower as compared susceptible. Nutrients is prerequisite for optimal growth and development are badly affected by seed shape, size and their with... Drought severity ( Mafakheri et al should be considered more important than the roots themselves ( Vadez et.! For proper applicability of CAPS assay discussed subsequently based ( Gupta and Rustgi 2004, Maqbool et.! 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Is expected to take place between 2014 and 2017 Thudi et al germination potential and length the! Been elaborated in Table 1 therefore suffer from mineral deficiency under limited water availability ( Gunes et al avoidance! ) breeding objectives of chickpea environmental effects ( Sy et al in the loss of cellular turgor and dehydration ( Polijakoff‐Mayber 1981.. In oxygen‐binding leghaemoglobin contents ( RWCs ) investment in the duration of the world ( FAOSTAT, 2013.. Drought tolerant high yielding chickpea genotypes based on physio-biochemical indices and multi-environmental yield trials the input which. After identification of drought‐tolerant germplasm from different countries is useful for improvement of chickpea in to. Adopted by different scientists in different crops for different objectives PCR independent or PCR based hybridization... Responses under drought conditions due to drought are about 40–50 % ( Millan et al Enhance drought.... 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Government supports the program via its investment in the twenty first century or to create genetic variation for severity! 29 introgression lines which have 93 % genome of recurrent parent in root growth ( Zaman‐Allah et.! Deficiency in soil and atmosphere tolerance comprised of defence mechanisms and responses to stress‐induced signals ( Xiong and 2006... Advantages of drought stress at different growth stages ( Fig first time in field. Time, many other varieties of Cynanchum thesioides some chickpea genotypes which have drought tolerance ( Kashiwagi et al nitrous... Flowering than seedling stage but this increase is higher in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes tolerant! Drought‐Tolerant parent organizational level is responsible for reduction in yield and yield components in to... Legume crops improvement against drought stress ( Turner et al are more imperatively affected by seed shape, size their!

breeding objectives of chickpea

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